Your physical therapist at Progressive Physical Therapy will design an individualized treatment program specific to the exact nature of your condition and your goals.
Range of Motion
Often, abnormal motion of the knee joint can lead to a progression of OA when there is more contact between, and wear on, the bones. Your therapist will assess your motion compared with expected normal motion and the motion of the knee on your uninvolved leg.
Strengthening the muscles around your knee will be an essential part of your rehabilitation program. Individuals with OA who adhere to strengthening programs have been shown to have less pain and an improved overall quality of life. There are several factors that influence the health of a joint: the quality of the cartilage that lines the bones, the tissue within and around the joints, and the associated muscles. Due to the wear and tear on cartilage associated with knee OA, maintaining strength in the muscles near the joint is crucial to preserve joint health. For example, as the muscles along the front and back of your thigh (quadriceps and hamstrings), cross the knee joint, they help control the motion and forces that are applied to the bones.
Strengthening the hip and core muscles also can help balance the amount of force on the knee joint, particularly during walking or running. The “core” refers to the muscles of the abdomen, low back, and pelvis. A strong core will increase stability through your body as you move your arms and legs. Your physical therapist will assess these different muscle groups, compare the strength in each limb, and prescribe specific exercises to target your areas of weakness.
Physical therapists are trained in manual (hands-on) therapy. Your physical therapist will gently move and mobilize your muscles and joints to improve their motion, flexibility, and strength. These techniques can target areas that are difficult to treat on your own. In patients with knee OA, the addition of manual therapy techniques to exercise has been shown to decrease pain and increase function.
Your physical therapist may recommend therapeutic modalities, such as ice and heat, to aid in pain management.
Compressive sleeves placed around the knee may help reduce pain and swelling. Devices such as realignment braces are used to modify the forces placed on the knee. These braces can help “unload” certain areas of your knee and move contact to less painful areas of the joint during weight-bearing activities.
Physical therapists are trained to understand how to prescribe exercises to individuals with injuries or pain. Since OA is a progressive disease, it is important to develop a specific plan to perform enough activity to address the problem while avoiding increases in stress on the knee joint. Activity must be prescribed and monitored based on type, frequency, duration, and intensity, with adequate time allotted for rest and recovery. Your physical therapist will consider the stage and extent of your arthritis and prescribe an individualized exercise program to address your needs and maximize the function of your knee.
What if I Need Surgery?
In some cases of knee OA, the meniscus (shock absorber of the knee) may be involved. In the past, surgery to repair or remove parts or all of this cartilage was common. Current research, however, has shown in a group of patients who were deemed surgical candidates, 60-70% of those who participated in a physical therapy program, instead of surgery, did not go on to have surgery. Further, after 1 year those outcomes were unchanged. This study suggests that physical therapy may be an effective alternative for those patients who would like to avoid surgery.
Sometimes conservative management strategies are not successful. When these strategies fail surgical intervention such as arthroscopy or a total knee replacement, may be recommended. There are many factors to consider when determining the appropriate surgical treatment, including the nature of your condition, and your age, activity level, and overall health. Your physical therapist will refer you to an orthopedic surgeon to discuss your surgical options.