Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine is a condition that usually occurs with aging and is typically diagnosed after age 50. Its causes include injury to the spine, wear and tear on the discs of the spine (often associated with obesity), or an inherited tendency to develop OA. Sometimes the cause is unknown. OA of the spine may cause pain and stiffness; and make it difficult to bend over, perform weight-bearing activities such as walking, and accomplish daily tasks such as dressing and bathing. The physical therapist at Progressive Physical Therapy will help you manage your condition, lessen your discomfort, and get moving again.
What is osteoarthritis of the spine?
As we age, the discs in our spine can wear, begin to bulge, and become narrowed. These changes can put strain on the cartilage, ligaments, and joints at the involved level of the spine and may cause pain. The narrowing of the disc also results in narrowing of the space between the spinal joints, called the “facet” joints. Weight-bearing forces on the joints increase because of these disc changes. As a result, the cartilage covering the joint surface can begin to fray and wear away over time. If your cartilage wears down so that your bones begin to rub together, it can result in enlarged joints, inflammation, stiffness, and pain.
As OA of the spine progresses, your body will try to repair it by growing new bone. This bony growth is called a “bone spur.” Spur development can result in a condition known as spinal stenosis. Most often this disorder affects men and women over 50 years of age. If the spurs enlarge, they can create a narrowing of the spaces in the spine. The narrowing can involve small or large areas and can result in pressure on nerves near the involved joints, resulting in symptoms that may include pain, tingling, numbness, or burning.
How can a physical therapist help?
Our physical therapists at Progressive Physical Therapy will help you set goals to reduce your symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. You’ll learn how to safely exercise and continue to participate in your normal daily activities.
Your physical therapist can help with a variety of treatment options, including:
- Exercise: Exercise is the most important treatment to lessen your pain and improve your mobility. Your physical therapist will prescribe specific low-impact activities that will strengthen your spine, abdomen, and hip muscles—to improve your ability to stand, walk, and balance, and lower your risk of falling.
Caution: Please consult your physical therapist or doctor before starting any exercise program.
- Stretching: Your physical therapist will prescribe specific stretching exercises for your spine, arms, or legs based on the results of your initial evaluation. Obese individuals are in special need of stretching and exercises. Combined with strengthening, stretching may help slow the progression of the disease.
- Symptom management: Symptom management means learning to feel better and remain active. Sometimes people are fearful that increased activity will worsen their symptoms or increase their pain. Your physical therapist will help you learn how to be more active without worsening your symptoms. He or she will help you find your appropriate activity levels, and develop a unique program to keep you moving.
- Daily activity training: Your physical therapist can teach you how to get in and out of bed, in and out of the bathtub, or out of a chair, and how to bend and walk with more ease.
- Use of modalities: Treatment “modalities” such as heat or ice may be used to help manage your symptoms.
- Manual therapy: Your physical therapist may use gentle hands-on techniques (manual therapy) to help improve your spinal flexibility and ease stiffness.
- Balance and walking training: Exercises and instruction may be used to improve your balance safely,and reduce your risk of falls.
- Specialized braces or taping:Your physical therapist may use taping or specialized braces to help support your joints. Back bracing is used most in more advanced conditions.
- Weight control: If you are obese, you are likely to have more spinal impairment in your upper back. Your physical therapist can help you improve your activity levels, and refer you to nutritional experts.
Remember, all cases of OA of the spine are different. Your physical therapist will choose the best treatment options for you based on his or her evaluation of your specific problem.
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