As we age, the discs in our back and neck can wear, begin to bulge, and become narrowed. These changes can put strain on the cartilage, ligaments, and joints at the involved level of the spine and may cause pain. The narrowing of the disc also results in narrowing of the space between the spinal joints, called the “facet” joints. Weight-bearing forces on the joints increase because of these disc changes. As a result, the cartilage covering the joint surface can begin to fray and wear away over time. If your cartilage wears down so that your bones begin to rub together, it can result in enlarged joints, inflammation, stiffness, and pain.
As OA of the spine progresses, your body will try to repair it by growing new bone. This bony growth is called a “bone spur.” Spur development can result in a condition known as spinal stenosis. Most often this disorder affects men and women over 50 years of age. If the spurs enlarge, they can create a narrowing of the spaces in the spine. The narrowing can involve small or large areas and can result in pressure on nerves near the involved joints, resulting in symptoms that may include pain, tingling, numbness, or burning.
How does it feel?
Symptoms of OA of the spine vary from person to person and can range from mild to disabling. You may not have symptoms even though the condition is present. Its onset and progression can be quite slow.
With early or mild disease, symptoms will be intermittent, or come and go. You might feel stiffness or aching after sitting a long time, on waking in the morning, or after vigorous activity. You or your family may notice changes in your posture. Some people will bend forward or shift to the side. With more advanced OA of the spine, symptoms will become more constant and tend to interfere more with your daily activity, especially with walking and standing.